Hybrid vehicles are now becoming more popular due to, the government prohibiting sales of new petrol and diesel cars in 2030. There are various types of HEV’s, but what is the difference between them?
Micro Hybrid Electric Vehicle
A micro hybrid electric vehicle contains a 12v battery and is driven by the internal combustion engine. This type of hybrid uses a start-stop system. Some examples of micro hybrids are; the BMW 1 and 3 series, Fiat 500, SMART car, Peugeot Citroen C3, Ford Focus and Transit, and Mercedes-Benz A-class.
Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV)
A MHEV has an internal combustion engine and a battery driven electric motor. The electric battery assists the engine in powering the vehicle. A mild hybrid vehicle is very similar to a self-charge hybrid, however MHEV’s have a smaller battery. Some examples of MHEV’s are; Mercedes-Benz S 400 HYBRID, Audi A8 Hybrid, Dodge Ram 1500 eTorque and Range Rover Evoque.
Full Hybrid Vehicle (FHEV)
A FHEV can run on the combustion engine alone, or the electric engine, or a combination of both. This type of vehicle doesn’t need to be plugged into any mains to be recharged, as the battery is recharged by running the combustion engine. Some examples of FHEV’s are; Toyota Prius, Ford Escape Hybrid and Honda Civic Hybrid.
Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV)
Plug-in hybrid vehicles use two sources of power. This type of vehicle has an internal combustion engine and a battery driven electric motor. PHEV’s have a bigger battery allowing the vehicle to travel further, but they have to be plugged into the mains to recharge the battery. Some examples of PHEV’s are; Ford Kuga PHEV, Skoda Superb iV and BMW 330e.
All Electric Vehicles (BEV)
BEV’s are able to drive on electric power only and do not require any petrol or diesel. These vehicles have no exhaust pipe or fuel tank and are only powered entirely by electricity. Some examples of all electric vehicles are; Peugeot e-208, Volkswagen ID.4 and Tesla Model 3.
What does all-electric range mean?
All-electric range means the distance that electric vehicles can travel without the use of petrol or diesel. The average range of a full electric vehicle is around 181 miles. However, depending on the make and model of the electric vehicle, and the battery capacity will depend on the range. For example; a Tesla, Model S90D has a battery capacity of 90KWh, which gives the vehicle a range of 346 miles.
Manufacturers are focusing on improving the battery capacity of electric vehicles to increase the range the vehicle can travel.
Factors that affect the electric vehicle range
There are many factors that can affect the range of electric vehicles. Here is a list of factors that can impact on the electric vehicles range;
⦁ Extra weight in the vehicle
⦁ Strong winds
⦁ High speeds
⦁ Driving up hills
⦁ Aggressive driving behaviours
⦁ Temperatures inside the vehicle that is higher than 20 Celsius or lower than 10 Celsius
What is the average distance a plug-in electric vehicle can travel?
As plug-in electric vehicles have an internal combustion engine and a battery driven electric motor, when the battery power is low, the engine will kick in to assist. All electric vehicles vary, however you can expect to travel on the battery power alone for approximately 20 to 50 miles before the engine kicks in to assist.
The longest range Plug-in Hybrid
One of the longest electric range plug-in hybrid vehicle is the BMW X5 xDrive45e. This vehicle can range up to 50-54 miles on one single charge, due to its 24KWh battery. The electric motor is integrated with a 3.0 litre turbocharged six-cylinder petrol engine.
What are the main types of powertrains in Full Hybrid Vehicles?
The main types of powertrains are Parallel hybrids and Series hybrids. Parallel hybrids engine can be powered in one of 3 ways. These vehicles can be powered directly by the engine, by the electrical motor, or by both systems working together.